WAR DEPARTMENT 1 OCTOBER 1944
RESTRICTED. DISSEMINATION OF RESTRICTED MATTER.--The information contained in restricted documents and the essential characteristics of restricted material may be given to any person known to be in the service of the United States and to persons of undoubted loyalty and discretion who are cooperating in Government work, but will not be communicated to the public or to the press except by authorized military public relations agencies. (See also par. 23b, AR 380-5, 15 Mar 1944.)
Washington : 1944
1 OCT 44
CHAPTER I. RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING. Section I. General 1 Section II. Conscription system 2 Section III. Procurement of officers 4 Section IV. Training 5 Section V. Promotion, pay and awards 7 Section VI. Morale, discipline, and efficiency 8 CHAPTER II. JAPANESE MILITARY SYSTEM. Section I. The Japanese High Command 10 Section II. Territorial organizations, including depot divisions 14 Section III. Field replacement system 15 CHAPTER III. FIELD ORGANIZATION. Section I. Major organizations 16 Section II. Arms (nondivisional) 44 Section III. Services (nondivisional) 49 Section IV. Military Intelligence 52 Section V. Reorganization 52 CHAPTER IV. JAPANESE AIR SERVICE. Section I. General 53 Section II. Organization of the Japanese Army Air Service 53 Section III. Strategic doctrine 55 Section IV. Japanese air tactics 56 Section V. Equipment 58 CHAPTER V. SPECIAL FORCES. Section I. Naval land forces 76 Section II. Task forces and special defense units 80 CHAPTER VI. JAPANESE MILITARY POLICE. 83 CHAPTER VII. TACTICS OF THE JAPANESE ARMY. PART I. General tactical doctrine 85 Section I. General 85 Section II. Offensive 85 Section III. Defensive 99 Section IV. Retrograde movements 103 Section V. Employment of tanks and mechanized units 106 PART II. Application of tactics 108 Section VI. Antiaircraft 108 Section VII. Antitank defense 114 Section VIII. Jungle warfare 120 Section IX. Small island defense 127 Section X. Coastal defense 139 Section XI. Japanese joint operations 166 Section XII. Japanese parachute troops 170 CHAPTER VIII. SUPPLY, MOVEMENTS, AND EVACUATION. Section I. Supply 171 Section II. Movements 179 Section III. Evacuation 184 CHAPTER IX. WEAPONS. Section I. Introduction 187 Section II. Infantry weapons 187 Section III. Artillery 220 Section IV. Tanks and armored cars 238 Section V. Chemical warfare 256 CHAPTER X. EQUIPMENT. Section I. Introduction 271 Section II. Infantry equipment 271 Section III. Artillery equipment 279 Section IV. Signal equipment 303 Section V. Engineer equipment 322 Section VI. Cavalry and reconnaissance 334 Section VII. Automotive and land transport equipment 334 Section VIII. Tentage 345 Section IX. Medical equipment 345 CHAPTER XI. UNIFORMS, PERSONAL EQUIPMENT, AND INSIGNIA 348 CHAPTER XII. CONVENTIONAL SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS Section I. Introduction 354 Section II. Geographic signs 355 Section III. Military signs 358 Section IV. Military abbreviations 384 CHAPTER XIII. MILITARY TERMS AND CHARACTERS 388 APPENDIX SUPPLEMENTAL DATA 400
1. This handbook on Japanese Military Forces (TM-E 30-480) has been prepared by the United States War Department, with the assistance and cooperation of representatives from the following headquarters:
British War Office.
General Headquarters, Southwest Pacific Area.
Southeast Asia Command, and General Headquarters, India.
Headquarters, United States Army Forces in South Pacific Area.
Headquarters, United States Army Forces in Central Pacific Area.
Allied Land Headquarters, Australia.
In general, it represents the agreed views of these headquarters at the time this handbook was written.
For the most part, the material contained in this handbook is based on information obtained in operations to 30 June 1944. This has been supplemented by study of Japanese Army manuals and other official and unofficial documents published by the Japanese before and after the beginning of hostilities, and by reports and observations of American and British military attacheés and observers.
2. PURPOSE AND SCOPE. The purpose of this handbook, which constitutes a revision of TM 30-480, 21 September 1942, is to give in a single publication the broad outlines as well as pertinent details of the organization, equipment, and training of the Japanese Army. In addition, Japanese tactical doctrines and techniques, as set forth in their manuals and observed in action, are discussed. The handbook is not intended to be complete or final; detailed information on particular subjects may be found in the special publications already available or in preparation by the various agencies and commands concerned.
3. LANGUAGE DIFFICULTIES. In cases where confusion might result, Romanji or other romanized form of the Japanese terms is given, together with the translation. A Japanese-English and English-Japanese glossary of the more important items is also included.
Because of differences in American, British, and Japanese terminology for certain army units, a translation of the Japanese terms has been used throughout. Thus units of all arms and services are called regiments, battalions, companies, platoons, and squads (sections). For American readers the change in terminology should cause no particular confusion except that some Japanese regimental organizations, especially in the Cavalry and the Engineers, correspond more closely to battalions in that they contain only three or four companies.
Since the handbook is intended for use by both American and British forces, commonly accepted or understood military terms of both nations have been used. Where no common term exists, both British and American terms appear, the British in parentheses.
4. REVISIONS. It is intended to keep the handbook up to date with necessary revisions and corrections as further information becomes available. In order that this may be facilitated, it is requested that all suggestions for changes or additions be communicated to the Military Intelligence Division, War Department, Washington 25, D.C.
Figure 1. Japanese infantry soldier.